The System of Automatic Control (SAC) supports or improves functioning of the managed object. In some cases operations, auxiliary for SAU (start - up, stop, control, adjustment, etc. ) can be also automated. SAU functions generally as a part of industrial or any other complex.
History of equipment contains many early examples of the designs possessing all distinctive features of SAU (regulation of flow of grain on mill with so - called "potryasky", water level in the boiler of the car of Polzunov, 1765, etc. ) . The system of automatic control with the centrifugal regulator in steam - engine of Uatt (1784) was the first closed SAU which received broad technical application. In process of improvement of steam - engines, turbines and internal combustion engines the different mechanical regulating systems and devices which reached considerable development at the end of 19 - the beginning of 20 centuries were more and more widely used. New stage in And. at. it is characterized by implementation in systems of regulation and management of electronic elements and devices of automatic equipment and telemechanics. It caused emergence of high - precision systems of tracking and targeting, telecontrol and telemetry, system of automatic control and correction. the 50th were marked 20 century by emergence of complex systems of management of productions and industrial complexes on the basis of electronic managing computers.
SAU are classified generally by the purpose of management, type of contour of management and way of signaling. Originally tasks of maintenance of certain laws of change in time of the managed sizes were set for SAU. In this class of systems distinguish systems of automatic control (CAP) which problem includes preservation by constants of value of the managed size; systems of program control where the managed size changes according to the set program; the watching systems for which the program of management is in advance unknown. Further the purpose of management began to contact directly the certain complex indicators of quality characterizing system (its productivity, reproduction accuracy, etc. ) ; requirements of achievement can be imposed on them to indicator of quality limit (the greatest or the smallest) values what the adaptive, or self - adapting systems were developed for. The last differ on way of management: in the self - adjusted systems control unit parameters change, values of the managed sizes will not be reached optimum or close to optimum yet; in self - organizing systems with the same purpose also its structure can change. Possibilities of the self - training systems improving algorithms of the functioning on the basis of the analysis of experience of management are widest, in principle. Search of the optimum mode in adaptive SAU can be carried out as by means of automatic search, and bespoiskovy image.